Legends of India :
The story of Yamuna River
Yamuna river is the fifth largest river of our India. For past many hundred years the river has been integral part of the Indian culture. It has been sustaining meaning of live hoods of millions of peoples. In pursuit inspiration venture it with the great hope. But at the present time, the river is more in news for its highly polluted state. The Yamuna River originates from the Yamunotri glacier in the lower Himalayas and merges with the Gangas at Kumbha Mela – famous Triveni Sangamam.
Origin to Yamuna River
The Yamuna is also known as the Juma which is the longest and the second largest tributary river of the Ganga in the north india. The Yamuna rises from the yamunotri glacier at the banderpooch peak in the Uttarkashi which is district of the Uttarnchal. The yamuna flows 1367 km from its source to its confluence with the Ganga at Allahabad.
The annual flow of Yamuna is about 10,000 cum and the annual usage is 4400 cum of which 96 percent is used for the irrigation. The Hindon, Chambal, Sidh, Betwa and Ken joins the river in its 1200 km long journey through the plaints.
Major tributaries of Yamuna River
A detailed information about the tributaries of River Yamuna are as follows –
Tons river is the biggest and most extensive tributary of the Yamuna. It springs in the 6315 m tall Bandar poonch mountain. The yamuna has the huge drainage area in the Himachal Pradesh. The Tons River joins Yamuna river beneath Kalsi close to the Dehradun, Uttarakhand.
Sindh River originates on the Malwa Plateau in Vidisha district, and flows north-northeast through the districts of Guna, Ashoknagar, Shivpuri, Datia, Gwalior and Bhind in Madhya Pradesh to join the Yamuna River in Etawah district, Uttar Pradesh.
The Hindon River is a wholly rain-fed river. The river has its source in the Saharanpur District from Upper Shivalik in the Lower Himalayan Range. The Hindon River has a drainage basin of 7 083 km2 and its passes a length of 400 km through the Meerut District, Muzaffarnagar District, Ghaziabad, Baghpat District, Noida, Greater Noida. It prior to meeting Yamuna river just exterior to Delhi.
The Ken river flows through the Bundel khand which is the area of the Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. The ken river has its source close to the Ahirgawan village in Jabalpur district and runs a length of 427 km. It prior to fusing with the Yamuna river at Chilla village in the vicinity of Fatehpur in Uttar Pradesh. The total drainage area of the Ken River is 28,058 km.
The Chambal River is also known as Charmanvati in prehistoric periods. The river runs across Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. The river has a drainage area of 143,219 km and navigates an overall distance of 960 km. The river has its origin in the Vindhya Range which is assist in hydroelectric power creation at Rana Pratap Sagar dam, Gandhi Sagar dam, and Jawahar Sagar dam. It prior to fusing with the Yamuna to the south east of Sohan Goan in Etawah district of Uttar Pradesh.
Betwa or Vetravati originates in Vindhya Range just north of Hoshangabad in Madhya Pradesh and flows north-east through Madhya Pradesh and flow through Orchha to Uttar Pradesh. It meets Yamuna at Hamirpur town in Uttar Pradesh.
History of Yamuna River
Some ancient evidence indicated that Yamuna river was a tributary of the Ghaggar river in the past with time it changed its course to east with a tectonic event in north India and become tributary of the Ganga instead. The god of the Yamuna River which is also known as Yami, is the sister of Yama, God of death, and the daughter of Surya, the Sun god, and his wife Samjn. The river Yamuna is also associated to the religious beliefs related to lord Krishna.
The Yamuna river and the Ganges are considered the most sacred rivers in India. According to the legends, Yamuna was the daughter of Surya, the Sun God, and sister to Yama, the God of Death and thus the popular belief have come up that those who take a dip in its holy waters are not besieged by fears of death.
The Yamuna river is closely connected to Lord Krishna’s childhood days. The Lord Krishna consecrated the Yamuna from the beginning of his transcendental pastimes in the world. When his father vasudeva cross the Yamuna river with little Lord Krishna for the safe place at Gokul on other bank of the river from Mathura, the Lord fell down in the river and by the dust of His lotus feet the river immediately became sanctified.
Geography and Wildlife of Yamuna River
Yamuna river is a river of northern India. Yamuna river is the longest tributary of the Ganges River, having a length of approximately 860 miles or 1,380 km. The source of the Yamuna happens to be in the western Himalayas. The Yamuna river initially flows south and then southeast, thus running parallel to and just west of the Ganges. The river then passes by Delhi and Agra, and debouches into the Ganges at Allahabad. Hindus consider this point where the rivers meet to be sacred.
The Yamuna river is navigable for small boats and barges. During the summer months the river dries down to a small stream, partly due to evaporation and partly because water is drawn away for the purpose of irrigation canals.
Yamuna River is home to the Asian Elephant. Whatever you will not find any elephant’s duration 900 km of the western Himalayan ranges and their bases. In the west of the Yamuna, the jungles of the lower Yamuna provide perfect passages for elephant traffic. The major jungles has to be seen here area of Khair, Sal and rosewood trees and the Chirr Pine woodlands of the Shivalik Mountains.
Pollution and Protection of Yamuna River
Pollution in Yamuna river has increased rapidly and the protection of this river includes several governmental steps. Yamuna is unfortunately one of the most polluted rivers in the world, especially in the banks near New Delhi, the capital of India. Almost 57% of the cities waste is dumped into the river. Numerous attempts have been made to clean it, however the efforts have brought few changes. In addition, the water in this river remains torpid for almost 9 months in a year infuriating the situation.
Pollution of Yamuna River
Yamuna river water is distinguishable as “clear blue” as compared to silt-ridden yellow of the Ganges. Due to high density of population growth, rapid industrialization, today Yamuna is terribly polluted. Delhi alone debouches around 3,296 MLD (million litre per day) of dirt in the river. This makes harms to aquatic life and depletes oxygen level resulting into bad odours and turbidity. The river water is suitable due to pollution, for uses like drinking, outdoor bathing, propagation of aquatic life, irrigation and industrial purposes.
Industrial pollution affects oxygen, temperature & pH etc. Large and medium industrial 22 units in Haryana, 42 units in Delhi and 17 units in Uttar Pradesh have been accused as directly discharging and polluting the river Yamuna river under the Action Plan area.
Protection of Yamuna River
The government of India has prepared elaborate plans to reconstruct and revamp the sewage system and also the drainage system that empty into the yamuna river. In the circumstances of river pollution, certain actions of cleaning Yamuna river have been strictly taken by Ministry of Environment and Forests of the Government of India (GOI) in 12 towns of Haryana, 8 towns in Uttar Pradesh and Delhi under an action plan called the Yamuna Action Plan (YAP), which is being implemented since 1993 by the National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD) of the Ministry of India.
Some Facts About Yamuna River
- Some of the famous cities on the bank on the Yamuna are Delhi, Noida, Mathura, Firojabad, Hamirpur and Bhagpat.
- The kumbh mela is held every 12 years at the triveni sangam, a mega event attended by millions of devotees.
- Not only people but wildlife also depend on the Yamuna. There are wildlife park such as Govindpur pashuvihar, Chudhar sanctuary, Rajaji Sanctuary, KKalesar National Park and Panna National Park through which the Yamuna flows and sustains life.
- Yamuna river provides sustenance to about 57 million peoples as it flows from uttrakhand to himachal to Haryana t rajasthan to Madhya Pradesh, Delhi and UP where it merges with Ganga at Allahbad.
- Just as the Ganga has several ghats in Haridwar, the Yamuna has 24 Ghats in the holycity of Mathura. It is the soul of Brijbhoomi.
- There are small and large barrages on the Yamuna such as the Dakpathar in Dehradun, Hathni Kund in Yamuna nagar, Wazirbad at Delhi, ITO at Delhi and Gokul at Mathura.
- The Taj Mahal (One of the seven wonders of the world) is located on the banks of the Yamuna river.